ISSN : 1301-5680
e-ISSN : 2149-8156
Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     
Effects of rivaroxaban on myocardial mitophagy in the rat heart
Tugra Gencpinar1, Cagatay Bilen2, Baris Kemahli3, Kivanc Kacar1, Pinar Akokay1, Serdar Bayrak1, Cenk Erdal1
1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Türkiye
2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Behçet Uz Children?s Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Türkiye
3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kent Hospital, Izmir, Türkiye
4Izmir Kavram Vocational School, Medical Laboratory Technigues, Lecture, Izmir, Türkiye
DOI : 10.5606/tgkdc.dergisi.2023.24385
Background: This study aims to demonstrate the efficacy of rivaroxaban's pharmacokinetic effects on myocardial mitophagy in rats by inducing apoptosis.

Methods: In this double-blind experiment, Wistar albino male rats were randomly divided into three groups for an experimental ischemia model: the sham group (Group 1; n=7), the control group (Group 2; n=7), and the drug group (Group 3; n=7). Rivaroxaban was perorally administered with gavage at 2 mg/ kg/day for 28 days in Group 3. The heart was surgically exposed, and ischemia was achieved by compressing the vessel around the proximal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 10 min. The heart tissue was then transected, removed, and morphologically and immunohistochemically examined under a light microscope.

Results: Heart sections were immunohistochemically marked with caspase 3, caspase 9, APAF1, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Group 1 was compared to the rivaroxaban-treated group, and the pathways inducing apoptosis was increased (caspase 3, caspase 9, APAF1; p<0.015, p<0.004, and p<0.01, respectively) and Bcl-2, the molecule that inhibits apoptosis, was decreased (p<0.01) in Group 3.

Conclusion: The present study provides an evidence that the mitophagy response is less in rivaroxaban-treated rats, showing the protective effect of rivaroxaban against acute ischemia. Rivaroxaban-treated rats may have reduced cell death in cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction and thus have reduced damage to the heart tissue caused by myocardial infarction.

Keywords : Anticoagulation, apoptosis, cardiac ischemia, mitophagy, rivaroxaban
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