ISSN : 1301-5680
e-ISSN : 2149-8156
Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     
The effect of cold application on pain during the chest tube removal: A meta-analysis
Zuleyha Simsek Yaban1, Cristina Álvarez-García2, Havva Bozdemir3
1Department of Surgical Nursing, Kocaeli University Faculty of Health Sciences, Kocaeli, Türkiye
2Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain
3Department of Nursing, Kocaeli University Medico-Social Center, Kocaeli, Türkiye
DOI : 10.5606/tgkdc.dergisi.2023.23846
Background: In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the effect of cold application on chest tube removal-related pain compared to conventional analgesic care.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted (PROSPERO, 2021: CRD42020179867). We searched studies in PubMed, Ovid-LWW, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, Science Direct, EBSCO, Google Scholar, Medline Complete, Cochrane Library and ULAKBIM databases and grey literature for this study. We included the articles published from January 2009 to December 2019. We limited the language to Turkish and English and the design to randomized-controlled trials. All studies were reviewed by two independent researchers. Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3.3 software. Heterogeneity was investigated by meta-regression.

Results: A total of 2,462 records were identified, of which 16 studies were included in a random model meta-analysis. The cold application was used in combination with a pharmacological agent in six studies and alone in 13 studies. All patients were older than 16 years and they had at least one chest tube. Cold application was found to be effective in relieving pain during chest tube removal (d=-1.265).

Conclusion: The use of a non-pharmacological method such as cold application is helpful to reduce pain or reduce painkiller doses during chest tube removal. Its use is recommended, as it is effective, easy to use, and cost-effective without any side effects.

Keywords : Chest tube removal, cold application, non-pharmacological approaches, pain
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