ISSN : 1301-5680
e-ISSN : 2149-8156
Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     
The impact of previous COVID-19 pneumonia on postoperative outcomes and complications in coronary artery bypass grafting
Özlem Erçen Diken1, İzzet Hafez2, Hüseyin Ali Tünel2, Muhammed Onur Hanedan3, Utku Alemdaroğlu2, Adem İlkay Diken2
1Department of Chest Diseases, University of Health Sciences, Adana City Training & Research Hospital, Health Sciences University, Adana, Türkiye
2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Application and Research Center, Adana, Türkiye
3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Adana City Training & Research Hospital, Health Sciences University, Trabzon, Türkiye
DOI : 10.5606/tgkdc.dergisi.2024.25993
Background: This study aimed to provide nuanced insights in managing patients with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved 168 patients (131 males, 37 females; mean age: 61.2±9.7 years; range, 51 to 72 years) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between December 2021 and December 2023. The study examined factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, blood test results, vaccination status, operative parameters, and postoperative complications. Patients" health records were reviewed to confirm the presence of previous COVID-19 pneumonia and vaccination status. Patients were divided into two groups based on their history of COVID-19 pneumonia: Group 1 included 140 who had not been diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia, and Group 2 included 28 patients who had a documented history of COVID-19 pneumonia. Postoperative pulmonary complications, including atelectasis, pleural effusion, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia, were noted.

Results: Patients with a history of COVID-19 pneumonia (Group 2, n=28) demonstrated significantly higher seropositivity for COVID-19 (89.3% vs. 29.3%, p=0.001) compared to those without a history (Group 1, n=140). Although pulmonary complications were higher in Group 2 (17.9% vs. 3.6%, p=0.013), postoperative mortality rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Pleural effusion was markedly higher in Group 2 (14.3% vs. 2.1%, p=0.015). Vaccination did not significantly affect perioperative and postoperative outcomes, except for a minor difference in postoperative drainage volume.

Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of prior COVID-19 pneumonia on postoperative outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting patients. Although there was a rise in pulmonary complications, the mortality rates stayed similar among individuals with and without a prior history of COVID-19 pneumonia. Vaccination did not significantly influence outcomes, emphasizing the need for further research with larger cohorts to validate and expand upon these findings.

Keywords : CABG, COVID-19, outcomes, pneumonia
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